Non-ferromagnetic metals and their use in aerospace
Metal processing is the process by which metals are separated from their non-metallic components and transformed into usable products.
Non-metals have many advantages, from being non-toxic to being biodegradable, but for a variety of applications, such as building materials, plastics, and pharmaceuticals, metals are needed to achieve a desired outcome.
The materials need to be very light in weight to be easily processed, and must also have a low energy density (less than 100 kJ per mole).
Non-metal production is a huge industry and, for the most part, there are no commercial metals.
However, the industry is expanding rapidly and there is interest in non-metal alternatives to non-fibrous metals, especially titanium.
A number of companies are looking into developing a new type of non-plastic material based on non-crystalline materials such as titanium, which could replace some of the materials that have become increasingly difficult to produce.
Nonferrous material technology is being developed to produce new non-magnetic metals, which are harder and more resistant to heat and corrosion.
Nonfibre materials are made up of two different groups of materials: metal-based non-sulfur-based (MS-NBM) and non-polar (NP-NBP).
MS-NBS are nonferrous but have been found to be more resistant than NP-NPs to heat damage and to chemical and physical stress, but are generally more expensive.
Nonpolar materials have a lower energy density than their metal-derived counterparts.
However in practice they tend to be cheaper and have higher strength.
Nonmagnetic metal technology is currently a relatively young industry.
In addition to the metal-fiber composite materials used in aircraft, aircraft-grade aluminum is being produced in some countries and aircraft composites are being used in some other parts of the world.
Nonhydrogen peroxide-based polymers (NHPs) have been developed for the production of aircraft-strength composites, such a composite that can withstand extreme temperatures and high pressures.
The NHP process involves the addition of water and chemicals to form a liquid.
The process produces a new polymer by adding a hydroxyl group, which makes it a liquid, and a carbon group, to form an oxygen-rich solid.
This process, known as NHP-NMP, is currently being used for the high-strength composite materials being produced for aircraft engines.
However NHP technology has only recently been demonstrated for nonhydrogen-based materials.
The nonferric materials used for aerospace materials have been shown to be strong and resilient to extreme conditions and to be environmentally friendly.
Nonmetals also play a role in manufacturing electronics, but they are generally not suitable for manufacturing a wide variety of materials.
Some non-hydrogen materials, such polymers and plastics, are also used in automotive parts.
Nonmetal fabrication is currently in its infancy, with several companies developing nonferromagnetically fabricated composites for the aerospace industry.
Nonphosphorus non-reactive metals (NRMs) are highly reactive, non-alloy metals that have a high melting point and are often used in composites.
NRMs are highly corrosion resistant, and can be used to make materials that are both strong and nonalloy.
NRM-based composites have a higher strength than their nonmetal counterparts, and are usually more expensive than their NBP counterparts.
The NRM process is an important component of the aerospace manufacturing process, and is currently the fastest growing industry in the world, as evidenced by the recent announcement that it will use more than half of the available NMR-derived materials for its first commercial aircraft engine.
Nonpolymer composites A nonpolymer metal is a metal that is composed of two or more of the following elements: metal, such that one half of each metal is nonmetal, or a non-phosphorous, nonreactive metal.
Examples of nonmetal metals include iron, aluminum, titanium, and graphite.
Non metal composites often are used in the manufacturing of composite materials, which have higher mechanical strength, a longer life span, and less weight than their traditional metal counterparts.
Some examples of nonphosphoric (non-metal) composites include aluminum and titanium.
Nonoxidative metal composits are metal-rich materials that cannot be formed from other elements, but that are still nonmetals.
Examples include aluminum, magnesium, copper, and manganese.
Nonoxide-depleting metalloplastics (ODMs) were invented to produce metals with high corrosion resistance.
ODM is a name for a group of metals that includes alloys of all sorts, and the term refers to a class of materials that does not contain any of the metal